by Mohamed Almosly
The 2005 constitution of Iraq guarantees every person the right to live in peaceful environmental conditions and obligates the government to protect the environment and biological diversity in Iraq. With regard to water sources from outside Iraq, the 2005 constitution of Iraq grants the authority to regulate these sources. On the other hand, the 2005 constitution of Iraq was considered exclusive for the federal government to develop a policy that outlines the policies related to the environment, health and water resources within the competencies shared between the federal government and the regions. To exercise joint competencies, the Iraqi constitution allows the federal government, regions, and governorates to create legislation, and the constitution also gives priority to legislation adopted by the regions and governorates over those adopted by the Federal Parliament in the event of a dispute between these laws. At the present time, there are many laws in force regarding the protection of the environment in Iraq (see Table 3), the most important of which are the law adopted by the Iraqi parliament in 2009 and the law issued in 2008 by the National Council of the Kurdistan Region – Iraq.